Friday, December 10, 2010

HARIDRA

Ayurvedic Classification

  • Acc. to Charaka : - Kushthaghana,Kandughana,Vishghna, Shirovirechan.
  • Acc. to Sushruta : - Haridradi,Mustadi ,Shelshmasanshaman.

Botanical name

Curcuma longa Linn.

Family

Zingiberaceae.

Synonyms

Harita ,Jayanti ,Kanchani ,Nisha ,Yoshitpriya.

Vernacular names

English : Indian saffron,

Hindi : Haldi,

Bengali : Haldi,

Gujarati : Haldar,

Kannad. : Arishina,

Malyalam : Manjal,

Marathi : Halad,

Punjabi : Haldi,

Tamil : Manjal,

Telugu : Pasupu,

Assamiya : Haldhi,

Urdu : Haldi.

Distribution

Extensively cultivated all over India. Believed to be indigenous in Bihar.

Botanical description

Habit : Perennial, aromatic, rhizomatous, tall herbs, Root stock;large ,ovoid with sessile cylindric tubers, orange coloured inside.

Leaves : Redial, very large, in tufts up to 1.2 m. or more long as blade, oblong lanceolate, base tapering, ligulate, prominent, mid-rib.

Inflorescences : spike, 0-15 cm.

Flowers : Hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, epigynous peduncle; 15cm or more, crowned by coma tinged with pink enlarged bracts, lover bracts;ovate, membranous.

Calyx : 3 sepals, gamosepalous, shirt cylindrical, minutely toothed.

Corolla : 3 petals, gamopetalous, tube funnal shaped, lobes usually ovate or oblong, upper lobe longer and some what concave.

Androceium : 6 stamens ,in 2 whorls of 3 each ,inner whorl;1 perfact stamen filament of perfact stamen ;broad ,grooved ,short. Auther ; 2-locular.

Gynoceium : Style; passing through groove of fertile stamen, filiform, bi-lipped, stigma;bi-lipped, lips cilicate. ovary;trilocular, many ovules on axile placentaton.

Fruit : Capsule; dehiscent, globose, membranous, 3 – valved.

Seed : Ovoid, oblong, usually axillate.

Chemical constituents

Essential oil resin, alkaloid, curcumin, aromatic , turmeric oil, termerol, turpenoids, curcumone.

Ayurvedic properties

Rasa : Katu,Tikta.

Guna : Ruksha

Veerya : Ushna.

Vipak : Katu

Dosh Karma : Kapha-Pittanut, Krmighan, Kushaghan, Pramehanasaka.

Roghanta : - Kandu,Raktavikar,Prameha roga,Kaphaja,Ka Swasa,Dehadorgandhya,Abhighataja Vedana- sitha.

Pharmacological

Activies : - Antibacterial, cholagogue insecticidal, anti fungal, anti-inflammatory, antoprotozoal, antihistaminic.

Part uses : - Rhizome.

Dose : - Powder – 1-3gm.

Formulation: - Haridra Khanda, Haridra Kwatha, Chandraprabha vati, Sudarsana Churna.

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