Tuesday, December 14, 2010


Ayurvedic Classification

  • Charak Samhita: Phala Varga.
  •  Sushruta Sanhita: Taila Varga, Sirovirechan, Sleshma sanshamana varga, vaman varga.


Kantaki vriksha, Kantak, Tiktak, Taila phala, Taila beej, Deergha kanta, Putrajivaka (fruit), Visha kanta, Puti gandha, Puti kantak, Puti patra, Korak vruksha, Jyotismati, Mahirudra


Vernacular names

  • Hindi – hingot, hingan, inguja.
  •  Bengali – hingon.
  • Marathi – hingan.
  •  Gujarati – Ingorio.
  • Kannada – ingalgida.
  • Telagu – gara, gari.
  • Tamil – nanjunda.
  • English – Delil.


Balanites agialida. Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Fam. Zygophyllaceae.)—The fruit of this plant is used medicinally in India. It contains a principle closely resembling saponin. The ripe seed yield about 50 per cent. of a fixed oil, which is used for burning.The unripe fruit is anthelmintic and purgative.

Multibranched, spiny shrub or tree up to 10 m tall. Crown spherical, in one or several distinct masses. Trunk short and often branching from near the base. Bark dark brown to grey, deeply fissured. Branches armed with stout yellow or green thorns up to 8 cm long. Leaves with two separate leaflets; leaflets obovate, asymmetric, 2.5-6 cm long, bright green, leathery, with fine hairs when young. Flowers in fascicles in the leaf axils, fragrant, yellowish-green.

Fruit and seed description

Fruit: a rather long, narrow drupe, 2.5-7 cm long,1.5-4 cm in diameter. Young fruits green and tormentose, turning yellow and glabrous when mature. Pulp bitter-sweet and edible. Seed: the pyrene (stone) is 1.5-3 cm long, light brown, fibrous and extremely hard. It makes up50-60% of the fruit. There are 500-1500 dry, clean seeds per kg.

Flowering and fruiting habit

Flowers are small, inconspicuous, hermaphroditic and pollinated by insects. The species has, especially in the equatorial zone, a pronounced diffuse flowering and fruiting habit; flowers and fruits occur during a prolonged season although a peak is always encountered.


  • Fruits are harvested when they turn yellow and the flesh becomes soft and sweet.
  • In areas with abundant hornbills, fruits will not persist long on the tree.
  • Discharged stones can be collected under the trees, but they are often prone to insect (seed borer) attack.
  • Consequently, usually only a fraction of the fruits can be collected.
  • Due to the prolonged fruiting season several collections may be necessary.
  • The fruits are collected by spreading a tarpaulin under the tree and shaking the branches until the fruits are released.
  • Climbing is inconvenient because of the long branches thorns.
  • A mature tree may yield up to 10,000 fruits per year which equals about 100-150 kg, or 55-80 kg of seed.
  • Usually a smaller amount is harvestable due to the prolonged fruiting season and predation.
  • Seeds may also be obtained from fruits that are being processed for other purposes.


It is found in dry regions. Mostly found in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Sikkim, Bihar and Burma. Also seen in Kanpur, Khandesh, South India, Madhya Pradesh.

Part used

Various parts are used in different texts such as

  • Twak (bark).
  • Phala (fruit).
  • Beej (seed).
  • Phala majja ( fruit pulp).
  • Seed oil.
  • Kshar.

Chemical constituents

Seeds kernels contain saponin, a tetraglucoside of a saponin, Acid hydrolysis gives Nitrogenin, it is an active haemolytic agent. Plant: diosgenin and yamogenin;  Root: steroidal sapogenin, diosgenin, yamogenin; Stem-bark: steroidal sapogenin, nitrogen glucoside, sesquiterpene, balanitol, bergapten; Leaf: 6 diosgenin glucosides; Fruit: steroidal sapogenin, yamogenin, 5 diosgenin glycerides, 6 diosgenin glucosides, diosgenin, balanitisins A, B, C, D & E; Seed: a saponin of diosgenin, non-edible fatty oil.


Rasa Panchak

  • Rasa – tikta,madhur, kashaya.
  • Guna – snigdha, ruksha.
  • Veerya – ushna.

  • Vipak – katu.

  • Dosh karma – kapha-vatahara.

  • Prabhav – krimighna.



Ayurvedic aspect:

  • Bark and fruit pulp is having kaphaghna, krimighna, kusthaghna and virechak property. 

  • Unripe fruit is strong purgative. 

  • Fruit pulp is given in kapha vikar. 

  • Oil is applied on wounds and burning wounds.

Modern aspect:

  • The fruits have been used in the treatment of liver and spleen diseases. 

  • The roots are used for abdominal pains and as a purgative. 

  • Gum from the wood is mixed with maize meal to treat chest complaints.


  • The fruit-pulp though bitter, is edible. 

  • It produces fruit even in dry years which makes it a highly appreciated food source in dry areas. 

  • Pounded fruits make a refreshing drink which becomes alcoholic if left to ferment.


  • Wood

    B. aegyptiaca has fine-grained dense and heavy heartwood.

  • It is easily worked and takes a good polish. 

  • Although valued for furniture it may be twisted and difficult to saw. 

  • The wood is durable and resistant to insects making it good for tool handles and domestic items such as spoons.   


  • Loha rasayana 

  • Kalyanaka lavan 

  • Mahanilini ghrit 


  • Phala majja: 5 -10 rati. 

  • Beej churna: 4 -10 rati. 

  • Twak kwath: 2- 4 tola. 

  • Beej tail: 5- 20 drops.

Antifertility efficacy of the plant Balanites roxburghii (balanitaceae) in female rats

  • Abstract Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and distilled water extracts of the fruits of the plant Balanites Roxburghii (Balanitaceae) were tested for antifertility activity in female albino rats at a dose of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight orally. Among these, the ethanol extract was found to be most effective in causing significant abortifacient activity. The antifertility activity was found to be dose dependent and reversible on withdrawal of the treatment.
  • Phytochemical screening of the ethanol extract showed positive tests for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavones, and phenolic compounds. The histological studies of the uterus and ovary were carried out to confirm the estrogenic activity. Acute toxicity studies of the crude extracts in mice revealed the non-toxic nature of the crude extracts.


Botanical Source

Boswellia serrata roxb.



Ayurvedic Classification

Gana (class)

  • Purish viranjaniya (ch. Su 4/15)
  • Kashaya skandha (ch. Vi. 8/144)
  • Shiro virechana ( ch. Vi. 8/151)
  • Rodhradi (su. Su. 38/8)
  • Eladi (su. Su. 38/13)
  • Kashaya skandh (su. Su. 42/13)


Shallaki, sallaki, sallaka, sugandha, mukhmoda, gajabhakshya, raj priya, surabhi rasa, nag vadhu, vasa, suvaha, ashwmutri, kunduru, kumbha, kunduruki, hridya, susrava, gandha vira etc.

Regional / Vernacular name

Sanskrit     à    Shallaki

Gujarati    à    Saledo, Dhupedo

Hindi    à     Salai

Marathi    à     Salai

Malayalam     à    Salai

Tamil    à    Pamragisamvrani

Telugu    à    Pamragi samvrani

Kannada    à    Madee

Punjabi    à     Salhee

Sinhali    à    Kundrikan

Bangali    à    Kundura, salai

Arabic    à    Luban

Urdu    à     Loban

English    à    Indian olibanun , Benzoin tree

Latin    à    Proropis serrata

Persian    à    Kundur

Part used

Kunduru (shallaki Niryasa i.e. gum resin).

Historical Aspects

Shallaki has not been mentioned in the vedic literatures but it has been explained in charaka samhita, Sushruta samhita & Other samhitas and Nighantus of Ayurveda.

Acharya Charak has advised its use in the treatment of Shvasa, Kasa, Hikka (ch.ch.- 17/117), Vatavyadhi (Bala Taila – Ch. Chi. 28/156) and Gulma – Ashmari (ch.chi. 26/64-65) He has also used in Dhoomvarti (ch. Su. 5/20-24)

Acharya Sushruta has prescribed has it in the treatment of Puadansha (su.chi. 19/14), pittabhishyanda ( su. ut. 10/4), pakvatisara (su.ut. 40/19), Raktatisara (su. ut. 40/22) and Shvasa – Hikka (su. ut. 51/12)

Acharya Bhela has recommended it in the treatment of Vata-vyadhi (Rasna Taila and Mulaka Taila – Bh. Chi 26)

Acharya Harita has also used it in the treatment of Vatavyadhi (kalka, kwatha & Mahabala taila – Ha. Sam. 3rd sthana/chapter-23)

Shallaki has been described in the Chakradatta, particularly in the treatment of vata vyadhi (Prasarani taila, kalka paka and Maha sugandha Taila – Vata vyadhi chikitsa)

Plant description

The tree of sallaki is 8 to 10 meters high. Bark is thin and it peels off easily from its stem. Leaves resemble neem leaves.

Flowers – are small, scented and white in colour. Ovary is tripartite.

Fruit – Contains single seed. Gum oozes on peeling the skin. It turns milky on rubbing with water. Five different types of gum are used in Unani system of medicine.

Geographical source

A moderate or large branching tree with a bole 12-15' in height and 3-5' in girth.

Generally found in dry hilly areas. About 10 species of genus Boswellia occur in tropical parts of Asia & Africa.

It is common in most parts of the central provinces,the Deccan, Bihar, orissa, Rajputana, Central India, Eastern states and north Gujarat, but not found in Bengal, Assam and Burma.

Two varieties are usually distinguished var. serrata with serrate and pubescent leaves and var. Glabra with entire, glabrous leaves. (Wealth of India: 1,208)


The tree, on tapping exudes an oleo-gum resin which is known as "Kunduru" or "sallai guggulu" or "Indian olibanum".

Tapping period for kunduru is extends from November to June or July.

The tapping of boswellia gum for industrial purposes has not met with much success, because of very variable yield.

Generally trees over 30" in girth, and also those damaged by borers yield the gum in some quantity, while some trees do not exude any. Dwarfed and suppressed trees or very old trees give poor yield.

Tapping doses not injury to the tree and the method of tapping influences yield.

One method, which is reported to have met with some success, consists in shaving off a thin band of bark (6" in width), 2-2.5" from the base of the tree and freshening it every 4th or 5th day.

The gum exudes usually after first freshening.

Pearson and Puran singh (Indian for rec 1919, 6, Vi) found the average annual yield of gum per tree to be about 2 lb., but according to trotter (1940, 285) the over all yield from large areas of forests is too small to be economical (wealth of India, 1/208).

Types of Kunduru

Acc. To it's shape and colour kunduru has been divided into 5 types, in the Unani system of medicine:

  • Nara Kunduru
  • Mada kunduru
  • Gola (Round)
  • KIshor kunduru
  • Dukraka kunduru

Properties of Kunduru (Boswellia gum)

    The properties of kunduru (Indian olibanum) can be broadly dealt with under three groups;

  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties
  • Pharmacological and therapeutic properties

(1) Physical properties

Colour :- The fresh exudtion of boswellia serrata resembled Canada balsam in colour and consistency. It hardens slowly, retaining its golden colour and transparency.

Odour :- The odour is that of olibanum, but fainter and more tevebin thinate. It burns readily and diffuses an agreeable odour (Dymock, warden and Hooper, I/303)

Touch :- Smooth

Taste :- The taste of the kunduru is mainly bitter and astringent.

(2) Chemical properties

Composition: - Acc. To Bull. Imp. Inst., London, 1919, 17,159, Indian olibanum has the following average composition.

Moisture: - 10-11%

Vol. oil: - 8-9%, the oil is usually pale yellow and has an agreeable odour. It is very similar to Turpentine oil.

Resin: - 55-57%

The resin varies in colour from transparent golden brown to dark brown or dark greensh brown. It is very brittle, with a vitreous fracture and resembles colophony in odour and is tasteless.

Gum :- 20-23%

Hydrolysis of the pure gum of B, serrata yields mainly pentoses (65% as arabino se) with high proportion of arabinose.

Galactose and xylose are present only insmall quantities (Malandkar, J.Indian Inst. Sci, 1925, 8A, 240)

The gum also contains oxidizing and diastatic enzymes and 3.303% of total nitrogen (fowler and malandkar, ib, 221)

Insoluble matter :- 4 – 5%

The shalaki (kunduru) was analysed in the modern Pharmaceutical. Chemistry laboratory of I.P.G.T. and R.A. and the report thus obtained is as under:

- Loss on drying at 110°C    5.2% w/w

- Ash value    2.25% w/w

- Water soluble extractive    23.1% w/w

- Alcohol soluble extractive    95% w/w

(3) Pharmacological and therapeutic properties

Rasa    Madhur, Katu, Tikta

Guna    Tikhsna

Veerya    Sheeta

Vipaka    Katu

Karma    Vata and Kapha Rogahara, Svedajanana, Tvachya, pradar a – Jvara – Grihapida, Malinata and mukharoga nas haka (ya. Tri. Acharya).

Rakta shodhaka, Tvachya, Varnaropana, Jvara – Mukharoga - Vataroga – kapharoga – Rakta vikar – Grinapida – Alakshmi Raktatisara and Jantu nashaka (Arya bhishak)

Dosha prabhav :    Vata kaphaghna

Bahya karma :     Shothahara, vedanashtapana, Durgandhanashana, jantughna, Varna shodhana, varnaropana and chakshushya.

Abhyantara karma:     Dipana, Pachana, Grahi, Purishaviram janiya, Raktastambhana, Kaphanissarak, svedajanana, Vedana sthapan.


Himalaya shallaki, Trutiyadi churna

Chemical constituents

Voletile oil is composed of Sequiterpende, alcohos, anisaldehyde, d-α-thujone, α-pinene, d-α-phellandrende and phenolic compounds.

Similar to turpentine oil, this oil is soluble in colophony & dammer, but more volatile in nature. Gum is mainly composed of arabinose with small amounts of xylose and galactose. Gum als conatins oxidizing and diastatic enzyes. The highly brittle resin is soluble in various organic solvents. It softens between 65-72°C and melts between 73-78°C. Resin is mainly employed in preparation of varnishes.

Indian olibanum contains β-boswellic acid in resin portion, Volatile oil contains P-cymene, α-limonene, terpinolene, α-thujone, α-thujone, α-phellandrene, α-terpiol, bornyl acetate, and methyl chacicol. A diterpene alcohol viz. serratol has been reported from gum resin.


Indian olibanum is mainly used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is known to regain integrity of vessels in joints from damage or spasm. It is also used in preparation of licence and as a fixative in perfumes.

According to Wealth of India

A tree up to 10m in height with crowded, imparipinate, 20cm long leaves, pale green, pedicellate, 4 cm long flowrs, beny, winged, 1.5 Χ 0.5 cm drugs and compressed seeds, found in Andhra Pradesh. The tree is recommended for social forestry and a forestation I Andhra Pradesh. [Fl Nallamalais, 86; Hemadri, Bull Med-Ethno – Bot Res. 1990, 12, 73]

B. serrata roxb. Ex Colebs Nitrogen & phosphorus increase the height of seedlings after 30days of their application. Increasing leaves of phosphorus significantly increased the height of seedlings at all stages of growth; maximum height being recorded at a combination of 100kg p/ha & 25 kg N/ha. The tree is used in Pune & neighboring districts for reclaiming barren hillocks (Med Arom plant Abstr, 1944, 16, 674; Ghate & Vartuk, Indian J for , 1988, 11, 199]

Diseases & Pests

Wood borers are reported to cause severe losses to the stored wood. The pests can be contoled by spraying BHC at fortnightly interval. They can also be controlled by debarking and proper drying or by placement of logs in a single row but not in conact with one another on skids and by proper stacking. [ Med Arom plant Absin, 1994, 16, 3]


It is used for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, mouth sources, asthma, jaundice, convulsions, troubles of the testis, and menstrual and urinary disorers. In the form of an oily solution it has benfeficial effect on hair growth. Salai guugal is very effective in Osteoarthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, soft tissue fibrositis and spondylitis without any side effects. The gum significantly increases the level of transminases in serum of rabbit. 3-keto-methyl- β-boswellic ester have been prepared, a pyrazaline derivative [C38H52N3O4, m p 145-47°] exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity. The gum is also used for lighting purposes [verghese, perfume flavou, 1988, 13(1), 1; Gupta et al, Indian Drugs, 1987, 25, 10; Rasheed at al, Hamdard, 1993, 36(4), 36; Rangari. Indian J pharm Sci, 1990, 52, 158; Maheshwari & singh, J Econ Bet Phytochem, 1991, 2/6]

The major components of the essential oil are: α-thujene, α-pinene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, α-phellandrene, limonene, α- and β-thujone and β-bourbonene. The essential oil affects spesmatogenesis in Dysdercus similes F. , There by acting as an effective insect growth regulator. The seed yields a fixed oil [Lawrence, perfume flavour, 1992, 17(3), 61; Rao & kaur, Curr Sci, 1989, 58, 822; Siddiqui et al, Hamdard, 1991, 34(1), 73]

Evolution (Nirukti)

Gajabhakshya It is eaten by elephants, so it is called gajabhakshya.

Suvaha Fragrance is spread all over.

Surabhi Its aroma is very beautiful.

Rasa Because of palatable taste.




Bahustrava More gum is secreted from the tree.

Part use


Rasa Panchak

Rasa     Madhur, Tikta, Katu.

Veerya     Sheeta

Vipak    Madhur, Katu

Doshaghnata    Kapha, Vata


Acc. To Sushruta

  • Decoction of bark of shallaki with Triphala is used for wound waching.
  • Anjan of Shallaki swarasa is used in Pittabhishyand.
  • The mixture of shallaki bark powder, sugar, & honey is lick to cure the Diarrhoea.
  • The bark of shallaki is cooked in milk & then to it add honey. This is useful to cure Raktatisar.
  • Smoke shallaki is useful for Asthmatic patient.

According to Charak

  • Shallaki bark powder, honey & Ghrit is given in Asthma.

Guna (property)

  • Shallaki is kashay, tikta, madhur, sheet veerya, Purish viranjaniya, Raktavikar, kapha, vata, Asha & Vrana Nashak properties.
  • Flowers & Fruits are having Kapha, Vata, Arsha, Kushtha & Aruchihar property.
  • Kunduru is having Shirovirechana, Vataroga, Kapharoga, twakvikar(skin disorder), pradar, jwrahar, stransan & rakta shodhak property.

Modern Aspects

The properties of Kunduru is having similar property that of Guggulu & Bola, so it is used similarly as Guggulu & Bola.

According to Dr. Vaman Desai,

Kunduru, guugulu, saubhagya, khadirasar & Gandhak Malahar are the best fro the wound of Pramehapidika.

The kunduru , Ahiphena(opium), Dhatura, Parasik Yavani, Beladona like Vedanashamak (analgesic) drugs are mixed & lepa is prepared & spread on cloth & prpare a pattika & this pattika is used in Parshvashoola etc. paining parts as a pain relief.

In Jirnakasa & puyameha the drink of Kunduru, badam, mishri, & water is give good effect.

When Kunduru is triturised in water, the water is become milky white.

Dose:- 1/8 tola to ¼ tola

According to Indian material medica

Action:- Resin is of a bitter balsamic odour when burnst & is used as refrigerant, diuretic, "aromatic, demulcent, alternative" emmenagogue and ecbolic, Oil called "Olibene", is stimulant.

Uses: - The fragrant resin is largely consumer as incense in houses especially during religious ceremonies; as astringent in the form of ointment it is usefulin chronic ulcers, diseased bones, buboe etc. in which it promotes absorption.

The resin rubbed in coconut oil or lemon juice is application ulcerations.

The gum is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and in skin disease, generally combined with aromatics mixed withy ghee it is prescribed in gonorrhea and in syphilitic cases; with coconut oil is applied to sores and it stimulants the growth of hair; internally it acts as stimulant expectorant in pulmonary diseases in bronchitis etc. mixed with gum acacia it is used as corrective fro foul breath.

The oil in 10 to 20 minim doses is useful in gonorrhea taken in demulcent drinks. Dose of the gum resin is from 5 to 40 grains used in aphthae, placenta previa, and amenorrhea, for nipples, gonorrhea and ringworm. As a slight hepatic stimulant it is used in jaundice not caused by mechanical obstruction and also in some chronic cases of diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia and hemorrhoids.

Quantitative Standards

  • Foreign matter:- Not more than 2%
  • Ash :- Not more than 2%
  • Acid – insoluble ash:- Not morethan 0.5%
  • Ethanol – soluble extractive – Not less than 56%
  • Water soluble extractive – Not less than 22%
  • Vol. oil – Not less than 4.5%


Large round or club shaped golden tears from B. casterii Birdw and B. frerean Birdw impored from countries of the Gulf and North Africa, sold in the Indian market by the name Kundur. The oleo gum resin of B. serratea is also adulterated with moina gum from Garuga pinnata Roxb.

Indian material medica

Sans: - Shallaki, H. & Bengali – Luban.

Constituents – Essential oil.

Action- Diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue.

According to "Vaidya Gopalji kunvarji thakur" in "Aushadhi vigyana" part-7 ………

  • The gum of shallaki is done with another medicine & aromatic things.
  • Mainly it is used extendly in skin diseases
  • Bark decoction is used in wound washin
  • In diarrhoea Bark powder is given with "Sarkara"
  • In Raktatisar bark decoction is boiled with milk & then given.
  • The powder of Tankan, Gandhak, Shallaki & Khadir is mixed & make ointment in Tila taila. This ointment is gives quick results in old wounds.

According to Vaidya V.M. Gogte

Kula:- Guggulu kula

Family:- Burseraceae

Lantin name:- Boswellia = after Dr.Boswel, Edinburgh; Serrata = Saw toothed or B. thurifera yielding Frankincense or B. glara (hairless).

English name: - Benzoin, Indian olibanum

Sanskrit name:- shallaki, Gajabhakshya, Suvaha, Surabhi, Rasa, Maharuna, Kunduraki, vallaki, Bahustrava (Its gum is called gandhabirogja or Kunduruka)

Botanical Description

The tree shallaki is 8 to 10 meters high. Bark is thin and it peels off easily from its stem. Leaves resemble neem leaves.

Flowers- are small, scented and white in colour ovary is tripartate.

Fruit: – Contains single seed Gum oozes on peeling the skin. It turns milky on rubbing with water. Five different types of gum are used in Unani system of medicine.


Maharashtra (Eastern part), Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, South India, Nepal, Marathwasa & Himalaya.

Ayurvedic Properties

Rasa –     Tikta

Guna –     Laghu, Ruksha

Veerya –     Sheeta

Vipak –     Katu


Useful in disorders caused by kaphapitta. Paste is applied in rheumatoid arthritis and cervical adenitis; ointment is used in chronic ulcers. In eye diseases, it is used by mixing with honey. It is an appetizer and digestive, therefore useful in bad breath, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, dysentery, It is used in chronic cough in the form of smoking colour of the stool is resoted to normal due to its action on pitta. Also useful in gonorrhea.


Dosha :- Kaphaghna, Pittaghna

Dhatu :- Meda, shukra, Mansa

Mala :- Purish(diarrohea, dysentery), astringent, urine (dysuria), sweda (stimulates sweating)

Organs :- Joints, Respiratory tract

Reviews on "INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS" volume-4

Ethno botanical Studies

  • Parts of the tree are used in epilepsy & as antidote to snake bite; as blood purifier, expectorant, stimulant, and diuretic, ant dysenteric, in cough, leucorrhoea and fever and urinary troubles.
  • The flowers are used as an anti-pyretic and in common cold.
  • The fruits are used in hemorrhoids and leucoderma.
  • The leaves are used as a anti-inflammatory.
  • The resin is used in small pox, lungs and pulmonary disease.
  • Gum is used as a diaphoretic, diuretic, astringent, nervous system disease, rhumetism, skin disease, sores, in cold cough, applied on skin to cure fungal infection, as antidiarrhoeal, antidysenteric, for wound healing in scorpion stings, as antipyretic, anti diabetic and in leucorrhoea, bronchitis and blood disorders.
  • The bark is used for wound healing , for body-ache, as antidiarrhoeal, antidysenteric, antiseptic, antiulcerogenic, in skin disease, haemorrhoids, cough, biliousness, for blood purification, dysurea, headache, as a antidote to snake bite, in pus formation in mouth, toothache, eye inflmmation, as haemostatic, suppurative.
  • The wood is used as rubefacient.

According to Raj nighantu

The names of kunduruka (Gandhviroja)

Kundurak, Saurashtra, Shikhari, Kunduruka, Kunduka, Tikshna, Gopurak, Bahugandha, Palinda and Bhishan – These are the 10 synonyms of Gandhviroja.

The Guna of Kunduraka

Kunduraka having a madhur, tikshna rasa & is useful in Kapha janya disorders, Pittaj Roga, also in Shaman karma of daha and it causes cooling effect in the body by drinking and application on skin. Also used in Pradar roga.

Sunday, December 12, 2010


Botanical Name

Ficus glomerata Roxb.




Charaka Samhita - Mutrasamgrahaniya, Kashaayaskandha
Sushruta Samhita - Nyagrodhaadi
Bhaava Prakaasha - Panchavalkala, Ksheerivruksha


Udumbara, Jantuphala, Yagyaanga, Hemadugdhaka, Sadaaphala, Pushpashunya, Apushpaphala, Krumivruksha.

Vernacular Names

Hindi : Gular;
Gujarati: Umbaro, Umarado;
Telugu : Ati;
Bengali : Yagnadumbur;
Marathi : Umbar;
English : Cluster fig, Country fig.


This tree is found throughout in India.

Botanical Description

Habit : Tall evergreen, spreading trees, up to 20 meters height, with few, short, aerial roots; banches smooth.
Bark : Grayish or blackish brown.
Leaf : 5-15 X 2.5-6.5, ovate to ovate-oblong, obtuse or acute, Petiole upto 3cm, long, glabrous; dark green.
Fruit : Achenes reddish brown, obovoid.

Chemical constituents

Bark contains around 14% of tannin, tetracyclic triterpene, leucoanthocyanins, lupeol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol etc.

Ayurvedic Properties (Rasa Panchaka)

Rasa         : Kashaaya
Guna         : Laghu, Ruksha
Veerya     : Sheeta
Vipaaka     : Katu
Doshakarma     : Kapha-Pitta shaamaka


Shothahara, Garbhaashayashothahara, Vedanaasthaapana, Mutrasamgrahaniya, Varnya, Raktapittashaamaka, Vranaropaka, Shukrastambhana, Stambhaka, Daahaprashamana.

Rogaghnata/ Indiactions

Prameha, Shotha, Pradara, Vedanaa, Vranavikruti, Raktaatisaara, Daaharoga, Pravaahikaa, Raktapitta, Grahani, Dantobheda, Shukrdourbalya.

Therapeutic Uses

The drug Udumbara is mutrasangrhaniya, stambhana and vranaropana; it is used in prameha, raktapitta and vrana. Bark is astringent and
decoction of bark is used as a wash for wounds; it is also given in prameha roga, raktaatisaara, pravaahikaa and grahani. The bark decoction is also given as uttar basti in pradara, swetapradara. The bark and fruit are taken in raktapitta.
Externally decoction, latex and paste of young shoots are used in ailments of ulceration, inflammation, pain and discoloration. Its bark is potent anti-oxidant, anthelmintic and also having anti inflammatory activities.

Parts Used

Twak (Bark), Ksheera (Latex), Moola (Roots), Praroha (Arial roots), Phala (Fruit).


Churna/ Powder     : 3 to 6 g
Kwatha/ Decoction     : 50 to 100 ml
Ksheera/ Latex     : 5 to 10 drops


Udumbara saara, Udumbaraadi leha, Udumbaraadi taila, Udumbara chandana yoga, Panchavalkala kwatha etc.

Saturday, December 11, 2010


Botanical Name

Ipomoea digitata Linn. / I.paniculata (Linn.) R.Br.

English Names

Aligator Yam, Giant Potato, Milky Yam

Sanskrit Name

Vidari Bhed


The early Sanskrit writers mentioned it under the names 'Vidari' and 'Bhumi-Kushmanda'. In the Nighantas, it has several synonyms. It was part of the composition of several diuretic and demulcent mixtures. In the Konkan region of India, the root was peeled, cut in to small pieces and dried for use as an aphrodisiac. The 'Susruta' gave several prescriptions for its use as an aphrodisiac.


It is found in India in the east including Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, and the west coast from Konkan to Kerala. It grows mostly in moist areas, monsoon forests and in coastal tracts. The plant is also grown for ornamental purposes and trained against trellises and pillars.


Description (Habit) An extensive perennial climber with large, ovoid and tuberous roots. The leaves are large, palmately 5-7 lobed, ovate, lanceolate, acute or acuminate, glabrous and with prominent nerves beneath. Flowers are widely campanulate and few to many in the axillary corymbose cymes. Corolla is purple and campanulate-infundibuliform. Ovary 4-celled. Capsules are small and ovoid. Seeds 4 in each fruit, black and woolly.

Principal Constituents

b -sitosterol was identified1. Taraxerol and sitosterol were also identified2.


It showed stimulant as well as depressant actions on different organ systems3.


There is no adverse effect reported on the use of this plant.


The root has alterative, aphrodisiac, tonic, stimulant properties and used in male infertility and inflammations.


  1. Indian J. Appl. Chem., 1964, 27, 155.

  2. Phytochemistry, 1972, 11, 2621.

  3. Indian J. Med. Sci., 1969, 23, 479


Friday, December 10, 2010


Ayurvedic Classification

  • Acc. to Charak : - Kanthya, Jivaniya, Varnya,Snehopag, Chardinigrahan, Kandughan.
  • Acc. to Sushruta : - Kakolyadi, Sarivadi, Anjanadi.

Botanical Name

Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.




Madhuka, Yashti, Atirasa, Saumya, Shoshapaha, Jalaja, Madhuparni.

Vernacular names

English : Liquorice,

Hindi : Mulethi,

Bengali : Yashtimadhu,

Gujarati : Jethimadha,

Kannad. : Madhuka,

Malyalam : Irattimadhuam,

Marathi : Jesthamadh,

Punjabi : Mulathi,

Tamil : Athimadhuram,

Telugu : Athimadhuramu,

Assamiya : Yestmadhu,

Urdu : Mulethi.


It is distributed in sub-tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, chiefly in Mediterranean countries, South Europe, Asia Minor, Egypt, Turkisthan, Iran,Siberia, Persia, Arab countries and Afganisthan. In India, it is reported to be cultivated in Baramulla, Sri nagar, Jammu, Dehradun, Delhi and South India.

Botanical discription

Habit : Tall perennial shrub up to 50 cm or more, erect.

Leaves : Compound, leaflets 4-5 pairs, oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, acute obtuse.

Inflorescences : Racemose, loose,shorter then the leaves or little longer.

Flower : 1 cm long.

Fruit : Pods, oblong-linear, 1-3, cm long, flattened, more or less densely echinate, glandular , many seeded or abbreviated and 2-3 seeded.

Chemical constituents

Glycyrrhizine, prenylated biaurone, licoagrone, 7- acetoxy-2-methyl isoflavone, 7-methoxy-2- methylisoflavone and 7-hydroxy-2-methyl isoflavone, 4-methyl coumarine, liqcoumarine, isoflavone, glyzaglabrin, quercitin, quercitin-3- glucoside, kaempferol, astragalin, liquirigenin and isoliquiritigenin(root).

Ayurvedic properties

Rasa : Madhur.

Guna : Guru, snigdha.

Veerya : Sheeta.

Vipak : Madhur.

Doshganata : Vatapittashamak.

Rogaghanta : - Kasa, Swasa, Hikka, Kantha,Raktapitta, Varnavikara, Kandu, Prameha, Mutrakrucchra, Raktavikar, Pandu.

Pharmacological Activites

Smooth muscle depressant, anti-microbial, hypolipidamic, antiviral, heptoprotective, antiulcer, antipyretic, antioxidant.

Part uses



 1-2 g Powder.


Yashtyadi Churna, Yashtimadhuvadya Taila, Kalyanavaleha, Angamardprashman Kashaya, Brihat Ashwagandha Ghrita, Brihatchchhagaladya Ghrita, Shatavaryadi Ghrita, Narika Churna, Guduchyadi Taila, Pippalyadi Taila, Vyaghri Taila, Vridhihara lepa.


Ayurvedic Classification

  • Acc. to Charaka : - Kushthaghana,Kandughana,Vishghna, Shirovirechan.
  • Acc. to Sushruta : - Haridradi,Mustadi ,Shelshmasanshaman.

Botanical name

Curcuma longa Linn.




Harita ,Jayanti ,Kanchani ,Nisha ,Yoshitpriya.

Vernacular names

English : Indian saffron,

Hindi : Haldi,

Bengali : Haldi,

Gujarati : Haldar,

Kannad. : Arishina,

Malyalam : Manjal,

Marathi : Halad,

Punjabi : Haldi,

Tamil : Manjal,

Telugu : Pasupu,

Assamiya : Haldhi,

Urdu : Haldi.


Extensively cultivated all over India. Believed to be indigenous in Bihar.

Botanical description

Habit : Perennial, aromatic, rhizomatous, tall herbs, Root stock;large ,ovoid with sessile cylindric tubers, orange coloured inside.

Leaves : Redial, very large, in tufts up to 1.2 m. or more long as blade, oblong lanceolate, base tapering, ligulate, prominent, mid-rib.

Inflorescences : spike, 0-15 cm.

Flowers : Hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, epigynous peduncle; 15cm or more, crowned by coma tinged with pink enlarged bracts, lover bracts;ovate, membranous.

Calyx : 3 sepals, gamosepalous, shirt cylindrical, minutely toothed.

Corolla : 3 petals, gamopetalous, tube funnal shaped, lobes usually ovate or oblong, upper lobe longer and some what concave.

Androceium : 6 stamens ,in 2 whorls of 3 each ,inner whorl;1 perfact stamen filament of perfact stamen ;broad ,grooved ,short. Auther ; 2-locular.

Gynoceium : Style; passing through groove of fertile stamen, filiform, bi-lipped, stigma;bi-lipped, lips cilicate. ovary;trilocular, many ovules on axile placentaton.

Fruit : Capsule; dehiscent, globose, membranous, 3 – valved.

Seed : Ovoid, oblong, usually axillate.

Chemical constituents

Essential oil resin, alkaloid, curcumin, aromatic , turmeric oil, termerol, turpenoids, curcumone.

Ayurvedic properties

Rasa : Katu,Tikta.

Guna : Ruksha

Veerya : Ushna.

Vipak : Katu

Dosh Karma : Kapha-Pittanut, Krmighan, Kushaghan, Pramehanasaka.

Roghanta : - Kandu,Raktavikar,Prameha roga,Kaphaja,Ka Swasa,Dehadorgandhya,Abhighataja Vedana- sitha.


Activies : - Antibacterial, cholagogue insecticidal, anti fungal, anti-inflammatory, antoprotozoal, antihistaminic.

Part uses : - Rhizome.

Dose : - Powder – 1-3gm.

Formulation: - Haridra Khanda, Haridra Kwatha, Chandraprabha vati, Sudarsana Churna.


botanical source

It is dried aqueous extract of Berberis aristata.

English Name : Indian Barberry

Arabic Name : Huzuz, Darhald (Root), Zarishk (Berries)

Chinese Name : Huang lian

French Name : Epine-vinette d’lnde

German Name : Indischer Berberitze

Hindi Name : Rasaut, Darhald (Root),Zarishk (Berries)

Persian Name : Filzahrah (Root), Zarishk (Berries)

Urdu Name : Darhald


Useful in Following diseases : Anaemia, Biliousness, Blood Impurities, Bronchitis, Constipation, Convalescence, Cough, Diarrhoea, Dysentery, Fevers, Gastritis, General Debility, Heartburn, Hepatitis, Hepatomegaly, Hypertension, Indigestion, Jaundice, Leucorrhoea, Liver Dysfunction, Malaria, Menorrhagia, Neuralgia, Persistent Infection due to Low Immunity, Pharyngitis, Piles, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Sore Throat, Spleen Dysfunction, Splenomegaly, Ulcers, Varicose Veins, Vitamin C Deficiency, Weakness of Eyesight.

  • Used externally for pimples, boils and oriental sores, unhealthy ulcers, Abrasions and ulceration of the skin. (Nadkarni.Vol.I P-188).
  • Contains Berberine- a broaed spectrum antibiotic for bacteria and protozoa. Bark of stem and root considered antiseptic. CRC-Duke’s. P-78.
  • Antipruritic. Promotes sweating,wound-healer,rich in berberine, Useful both internally and externally. Externally for wound –dressing,unhealthy wounds, abrasions and ulcerations of the skin. (Paranjape. P 66-67).
  • Charaka has categorized Berberis Aristata as arsoghana ( Anti-hemorrhoidal) and handinghana ( Anti – Pruritic ). Susruta mentions its as a ropana – wound- healer. Externally – the wounds are dressed with the medicated oil of the decoction of daruharidra ( Called Rasanjana / Rasaunt) it reduces the pruritus also. The paste applied on painful and swollen parts effectively mitigates the symptoms. Extremely valuable in bleeding piles. ( Paranjape – P 66-67).
  • In bleeding piles it is administered( internally ) in doses of 5 to 15 grains with butter. Its solution ( 1 m 32 ) is used as a wash for piles. Its ointment made with camphor and butter is applied to pimples and boils… applied locally to inflammatory swellings and as a couyruim for the eyes in conjunctivitis. (Nadkarni vol I. P88).
  • Tonic, stomachic, astringent, antiperiodic, diaphoretic, antipyretic and altertive. Used in fevers ( remittent, intermittent and malarial). Locally in eye troubles. In rheumatism as a blood purifier. In liver spleen bilious problems. In congestions of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and rheumatism. Also in gastric and duodenal ulcers. (Nadkarni, Vol I, Pages 187-191).
  • Internally, daruharidra is useful in a vast range of diseases. The properties like cholegogue, hepato- stimulant and astringent are useful in treating anorexia, dysentery, hepatitis and liver disorders. As a blood purifer. In reducing swellings. In obesity, diabetes and uterine inflammations. In fevers and as a general tonic and debility, especially due to fevers. (Paranjape Pages 66-67).
  • Barberry has been used by Amerindians, for kidney ailments, rheumatisms, sores & ulcers. It has been recommended for arthritis, fever, gout, lumbago, rheumatism, stomatitis and ulcers etc. Also in inflammations, biliary colics dysruria, neuralgias, sacral pain, side pains and vaginismus. It contains goodly amounts of berberine- a broad spectrum antibiotic for bacteria and protozoa. ( Dukes . Page 78 ).
  • A bitter tonic. It effectively reduces uterine inflammations hence is valuable medicament for leucorrhoea and menorrhagia. It also helps in healing the ulcers of the cervix. (Paranjape Pages 66-67).